The present monograph represents a manual, summarizing state-of-the-art of the Altaic diachronic linguistics, concentrates on development of linguistic research in the Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, Koreanic and Japonic branches, first descriptive, later comparative. A special attention is payed to history of both the partial and general models of classifications, overview of etymologies of the main ethno- and choronyms and process of establishing the phonetic correspondences within and among the individual branches. For illustration of the common heritage the nominal and pronominal case systems were chosen as examples of the stables subsystems. In details is mapped a history of etymological analysis of the Altaic numerals, including new solutions. The monograph is for linguists, historians, anthropologists and archaeologists interested in Siberia, Central Asia and the Far East.